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Tag Archives: PowerShell

Load git into PowerShell

Just a little productivity tip. If you use git on Windows, you probably already have the Github for Windows application. This application adds the Git Shell:


The Git Shell will open a PowerShell window and execute shell.ps1 from the Github directory:


What it won’t do is to load your personal PowerShell profile. I want to use my PowerShell profile that creates some links and adjust the look-and-feel and the promt of the shell. By the way I have published my profile.ps1 as a gist:

I also want to have git in PowerShell available directly. The answer is in the shell.ps1 in the Github folder:


So add this line to your profile.ps1 as I did:

. (Resolve-Path "$env:LOCALAPPDATA\GitHub\shell.ps1")

That’s it. If you haven’t seen the “DOT” in PowerShell scripts, it is called dot sourcing, it will execute the script and keep all the variables and references within the script.

An alternative

If you do not have Github for Windows, there is another way to load git functionality into PowerShell:

A presentation about PowerShell and SharePoint

Yesterday I had a little presentation about PowerShell basics in the SharePoint context. Here you can see the presentation I’ve published on slideshare. The text is in Swedish.

A PowerShell one liner

PowerShell is powerful. You can write concise, well formulated, functional-style code. Recently I got the following quiz:

You’ve got $100. You have to buy exactly 100 animal, at least 1 dog, 1 cat and 1 mouse. 1 dog costs $15, 1 cat costs $1, 1 mouse costs $0.25.

There can be  many ways to solve it. But look at this one line solution. It is quite impressive what you can do with PowerShell

1..98 | % {
    $dog = $_
    1..98 | % {
      $cat = $_
        "Dog" = $dog
        "Cat" = $cat
        "Mouse" = 100 - $dog -$cat
  } | ? {
      $_.Mouse -gt 0
  } | ? { $_.Dog * 15 + $_.Cat * 1 + $_.Mouse * 0.25 -eq 100 }

This solution uses ranges, dynamic objects (PSObject), nested for loops, implicit returns and advanced filtering. All that is is out-of-the-box PowerShell.

The CDN concept in SharePoint

How many instances of jquery are there in your SharePoint farm?

 Get-SPWebApplication http://dev `
  | Select -Expand Sites `
  | Select -Expand AllWebs `
  | Select -Expand Lists `
  | Select -Expand Items `
  | ? { $_.Url -match "jquery.*.js" } `
  | select Name, Url

Have you more than two (jquery and jquery-ui), then you have too much. You can save much place and performance by using Content Delivery Network (CDN) links for the resources like javascript, css, fonts and icons. Consider those Content Delivery Networks:

CDN for custom resources

But can we benefit from this CDN concept for our custom resources? I think so, if your farm has ten thousands of site collections, and you deploy javascript files, css files in the Style Library, it would be great to eliminate resource duplicates. So my thougt is to deploy resources to one place. It could be:

  • An external web application like many web applications do
  • A dedicated site collection for resources with Anonymous access
The CDN concept in Office 365

Have you noticed that Office 365 uses cdn links for almost all SharePoint javascript files that traditionaly were referenced from the _layouts folder


With this I want to raise a question. What do you think about the CDN concept within SharePoint? Have you used it? Have you plans to have it?

Set IE Proxy Server with PowerShell

Today just a quick one-liner tip for PowerShell.  Use this script to set a proxy server in IE Settings. I got the inspiration from Aymeric’s blog:  Scripting : Toggle proxy server in IE settings with PowerShell:

sp AutoConfigUrl "" `
   -Path "HKCU:\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings"

By the way sp is just alias for Set-ItemProperty cmdlet:

This corresponds these settings in IE (Tools – Internet Options – Connections – Lan Settings):


It can be useful if you have want to automate this.

AutoSPInstaller: error while stopping the default web site in IIS


During an installation with AutoSPInstaller on my development machine I ran into a strange issue. I got the following error:

System.IO.FileNotFoundException: Could not load file or assembly ‘Microsoft.IIS.PowerShell.Framework’ or one of its dependencies

I haven’t found any other people having the same problem with the AutoSPInstaller, but I found a similar report on another forum: Maybe I am the only one who gets this error in AutoSPInstaller, if not it can be useful to write the solution down.

The error occurs when the default web site in IIS is stopped. For some reason Get-WebSite cmdlet throws an exception the first time you invoke it, but not the second time.

To get it working I followed the tip from the and wrapped the Get-Website code in a try-and-catch, where the same cmdlet was in try and in catch. This line:

$defaultWebsite = Get-Website | Where-Object {$_.Name -eq "Default Web Site" -or $_.ID -eq 1 -or $_.physicalPath -eq "%SystemDrive%\inetpub\wwwroot"} # Try different ways of identifying the Default Web Site, in case it has a different name (e.g. localized installs)

becomes this code (the lines in try and catch are identical):

    $defaultWebsite = Get-Website | Where-Object {$_.Name -eq "Default Web Site" -or $_.ID -eq 1 -or $_.physicalPath -eq "%SystemDrive%\inetpub\wwwroot"} # Try different ways of identifying the Default Web Site, in case it has a different name (e.g. localized installs)
} Catch [System.IO.FileNotFoundException]{
    $defaultWebsite = Get-Website | Where-Object {$_.Name -eq "Default Web Site" -or $_.ID -eq 1 -or $_.physicalPath -eq "%SystemDrive%\inetpub\wwwroot"}

With this fix I was able to run the whole AutoSPInstaller script. My development machine was a fresh installed Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 (without any updates).

Leave a comment if you run into the same issue. If so, I’ll try to send a patch to the AutoSPInstaller code.

Update 2013-06-06

This issue was reported to AutoSPInstaller at codeplex and closed as “self-resolved”.

PowerShell: Copy an entire document library from SharePoint 2007 to disk

For a while ago I needed to copy all files from a document library within a SharePoint 2007 site to the hard drive. So I didn’t need to copy files from SharePoint to SharePoint so I couldn’t use the stsadm -o export command or Chris O’Brien’s nice SharePoint Content Deployment Wizard. I came across the SPIEFolder application which should work with SharePoint 2007 and 2010. It has a site on codeplex:, but neither the binary nor the source code can be downloaded from there. After some searching I found the binary in the author’s skydrive. The fact that the source code was not available seemed as an disanvantage because I could not know what code was run. Nevertheless I tried it out and it didn’t work:

spiefolder -o export -url "http://dev/Documents" -directory c:\tolle\Documents –recursive

I got the following error:

The Web application at http://dev/Documents could not be found. Verify that you have typed the URL correctly. If the URL should be serving existing content, the system administrator may need to add a new request URL mapping to the intended application.

So I wrote my own code to copy the documents. To write a console application feels so yesterdayish, so it is written in PowerShell. Even if there are no PowerShell snapins for SharePoint 2007, you have access to the entire Server Object Model, the only thing you have to do is to load the SharePoint assembly:


Then you can instantiate all SharePoint objects like in C#, but in a PowerShell way:

$site = new-Object Microsoft.SharePoint.SPSite("http://dev")
$web = $site.OpenWeb()

You can even download a module for emulating cmdlets: Get-SPWeb, Get-SPWebApplication and Get-SPFarm, written by Natalia Tsymbalenko ( to get started or just to find some inspiration.

I have created a ps1-script which only does one thing – it copies an entire document library to disk. Much of inspiration to structure the script comes from “Delete-SPListItems” (

Here it is: Pull-Documents.ps1

    Use Pull-Documents to copy the entire document library to disk
    This script iterates recursively over all directories and files in a document library and writes binary data to the disk
    The structure is kept as in the Document library
    It is mainly written for SharePoint 2007, but it works even in SharePoint 2010
    Pull-Document -Url http://dev -Library "Shared Documents"
    Name: Pull-Documents.ps1
    Author: Anatoly Mironov
    Last Edit: 2012-12-03
    Keywords: SPList, Documents, Files, SPDocumentLibrary
#Requires -Version 1.0
[Parameter(Mandatory=$true)][System.String]$Url = $(Read-Host -prompt "Web Url"),
[Parameter(Mandatory=$true)][System.String]$Library = $(Read-Host -prompt "Document Library")

$site = new-object microsoft.sharepoint.spsite($Url)
$web = $site.OpenWeb()

$folder = $web.GetFolder($Library)
$folder # must output it otherwise "doesn't exist" in 2007

    Write-Error "The document library cannot be found"

$directory = $pwd.Path

$rootDirectory = Join-Path $pwd $folder.Name

if (Test-Path $rootDirectory) {
    Write-Error "The folder $Library in the current directory already exists, please remove it"

#progress variables
$global:counter = 0
$global:total = 0
#recursively count all files to pull
function count($folder) {
    if ($folder.Name -ne "Forms") {
        $global:total += $folder.Files.Count
        $folder.SubFolders | Foreach { count $_ }
write "counting files, please wait..."
count $folder
write "files count $global:total"

function progress($path) {
    $percent = $global:counter / $global:total * 100
    write-progress -activity "Pulling documents from $Library" -status $path -PercentComplete $percent

#Write file to disk
function Save ($file, $directory) {
    $data = $file.OpenBinary()
    $path = Join-Path $directory $file.Name
    progress $path
    [System.IO.File]::WriteAllBytes($path, $data)

#Forms folder doesn't need to be copied
$formsDirectory = Join-Path $rootDirectory "Forms"

function Pull($folder, [string]$directory) {
    $directory = Join-Path $directory $folder.Name
    if ($directory -eq $formsDirectory) {
    mkdir $directory | out-null

    $folder.Files | Foreach { Save $_ $directory }

    $folder.Subfolders | Foreach { Pull $_ $directory }

Write "Copying files recursively"
Pull $folder $directory


I have tested this script in SharePoint 2007 and 2010. It works. Let me know if you find this useful or have some suggestions.

Run web.config-dependant code in PowerShell

PowerShell is a great tool. It helps in SharePoint administration and tasks automation. Today I needed to provision a webpart on many similar pages. This third-party webpart’s constructor instantiates a dataaccess service and uses a connectionstring which is stored in the web.config file. So the webpart creation failed until I found a way to load the configuration into powershell.

First you can create a simple file powershell.exe.config, put it into $pshome (C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0). In that file you can specify the connectionstring in the same way like in the web.config (or app.config). But it is not secure: the connectionstring can be changed in the future, and you really don’t want to copy your connectionstrings around. So there is a better way: Check out Ohad Israeli’s blog post about how a configuration file can be bound dynamically in a .net assembly: Binding to a custom App.Config file.

In PowerShell you can do the same, all we need is to modify the syntax: StackOverflow: Powershell Calling .NET Assembly that uses App.config:

[System.AppDomain]::CurrentDomain.SetData("APP_CONFIG_FILE", $config_path)

In SharePoint the web.config file resides in:


So include this in the script which invokes web.config dependant code:

$config_path = "C:\inetpub\wwwroot\wss\VirtualDirectories\80\web.config"
[System.AppDomain]::CurrentDomain.SetData("APP_CONFIG_FILE", $config_path)

The ability to bind the configuration file dynamically can be even helpful in another part of the SharePoint world – timerjobs. The timer jobs are executed by owstimer.exe. This service has an own configuration file: {hive}\BIN\OWSTIMER.EXE.CONFIG If the timer job configuration shares connectionstrings or appSettings with web.config, it should be theoretically possible to bind the web.config to owstimer. Leave a comment below if you find this information useful.

Create SPGroup in PowerShell

Thanks to Ryan for sharing powershell functions. I used New-SPGroup which I altered. Now You can define which permissions will be given to the new group. You can even create groups without default users. Here it comes:

function New-SPGroup {
	Use New-SPGroup to create a SharePoint Group.
	This function uses the Add() method of a SharePoint RoleAssignments property in an SPWeb to create a SharePoint Group.
New-SPGroup -Web http://intranet -GroupName "Test Group" -OwnerName DOMAIN\User -MemberName DOMAIN\User2 -Description "My Group" -Role "Read"
	This example creates a group called "Test Group" in the http://intranet site, with a description of "My Group".  The owner is DOMAIN\User and the first member of the group is DOMAIN\User2 and adds "Limited Access".
	C:\PS>New-SPGroup -Web http://intranet -GroupName "Test Group" -OwnerName DOMAIN\User -MemberName DOMAIN\User2 -Description "My Group" -Role "Read"
	This example creates a group called "Test Group" in the http://intranet site, with a description of "My Group".  The owner is DOMAIN\User and the first member of the group is DOMAIN\User2 and adds "Read" access.
	Pay attention to the role definition names. They must be provided in the language of your site.
	Name: New-SPGroup
	Author: Ryan Dennis, Anatoly Mironov
	Last Edit: 2012-11-05
	Keywords: New-SPGroup, spgroup, permissions
#Requires -Version 2.0
	$SPWeb = $Web.Read()
	if ($SPWeb.SiteGroups[$GroupName] -ne $null){
		throw "Group $GroupName already exists!"	

	if ($Role) {
		$roleDefinition = $SPWeb.RoleDefinitions[$Role]
		if (!$roleDefinition) {
			throw "Role Definition $Role doesn't exist!"

	if ($SPWeb.Site.WebApplication.UseClaimsAuthentication){
		$op = New-SPClaimsPrincipal $OwnerName -IdentityType WindowsSamAccountName
		$owner = $SPWeb | Get-SPUser $op
		if ($MemberName) {
			$mp = New-SPClaimsPrincipal $MemberName -IdentityType WindowsSamAccountName
			$member = $SPWeb | Get-SPUser $mp
	else {
	$owner = $SPWeb | Get-SPUser $OwnerName
		if ($MemberName) {
			$member = $SPWeb | Get-SPUser $MemberName

	$SPWeb.SiteGroups.Add($GroupName, $owner, $member, $Description)
	$SPGroup = $SPWeb.SiteGroups[$GroupName]	
	$roleAssignment = new-object Microsoft.SharePoint.SPRoleAssignment($SPGroup)
	if ($Role) {
	return $SPGroup


Disclaimer: This post and function is 100% taken from the book by Gary Lapointe and Shannon Bray entitled “Automating Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administration with Windows PowerShell 2.0.”

This post goes hand in hand with my recent post called “Retrieve SharePoint Groups using PowerShell.”  In that post, we used a simple PowerShell Function to retrieve an SP Group and return the object in our command window.  In this function, we’re going to take the work a step further – we will use our function to create a new SharePoint Group.

Again, I have taken the code from Gary and Shannon’s book – the only addition I have made is comment-based help.  Since I intend to use these functions, I like to have help so I can go back and see examples and things like that.

The function provided in the book is very nice, it consists of…

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