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Using CAML with SharePoint REST API

Do you prefer REST over CSOM as I do? I’ll skip the whys. Andrew Connell put it already in wrtiting so nicely. Well, if you do prefer REST, then you must have discovered some shortcomings of REST, or its incompleteness compared to CSOM. I think of:

  1. Inability to filter items based on multivalued taxonomy fields
  2. Inability to filter items based on user fields where user is added through a group, rather than directly, e.g. AssignedTo=[Me] combined with a SharePoint group.

In such situations I was forced to use CSOM. Until yesterday. Yesterday I learned that we can actually use CAML queries in REST requests.

 

This enables using REST in all situations. The REST API is still developed and many features are added. Maybe a particular operation that needs a CAML query today, can be supported in the core REST API and can be easily refactored then.

But until then, we can use CAML queries in REST requests. Here are the important things about it:

  • A REST request with a CAML query is always a POST request
  • A REST request with a CAML query has always to have X-RequestDigest http header (actually because it is a POST request)
  • A REST request with a CAML query should always have the attached CAML query in the request body (and not in a query string). We don’t want to mess with long urls, do we?
  • A REST request with a CAML query must have the http header “Content-Type: application/json;odata=verbose” unless you use xml in the request body.
Needed HTTP Headers in REST requests

HTTP headers you have to provide in REST requests with CAML queries

You can use jQuery or SP.RequestExecutor to make an ajax call. The REST endpoint is:

_api/web/Lists/GetByTitle('<your list title>')/GetItems

The request body (if you use json, and I bet, you do) is in this format:

{ "query" :
   {"__metadata": 
      { "type": "SP.CamlQuery" }
      , "ViewXml": "<YOUR CAML QUERY>" 
   }
}

Here is the boilerplate for a REST request with a CAML Query:

function getDataWithCaml(listName, caml) {
    var endpoint = "/_api/web/lists/GetByTitle('" 
        + listName + "')/GetItems";
    var requestData = { "query" :
           {"__metadata": 
              { "type": "SP.CamlQuery" }
              , "ViewXml": caml
           }
        };
    return jQuery.ajax({
        url: endpoint,
        method: "POST",
        data: requestData,
        headers: {
            "X-RequestDigest": $("#__REQUESTDIGEST").val(),
            "Accept": "application/json; odata=verbose",
            "Content-Type": "application/json; odata=verbose"
        }
    });
}

This function is just an example. It has no error handling, and it takes for granted that your list is in the root site for on your (sub-)domain (“/”). So take it as an example only.

Here is how the function can be invoked

var caml = "<View><Query><Where><Or><Eq><FieldRef Name='AssignedTo' /><Value Type='Integer'><UserID/></Value></Eq><Membership Type='CurrentUserGroups'><FieldRef Name='AssignedTo' /> </Membership></Or></Where></Query></View>";
getDataWithCaml("Tasks", caml);

REST API: Add a plain text file as an attachment to a list item

plain-text-attachment
SharePoint 2013 REST API has been enhanced and extended. The old _vti_bin/listdata.svc is still there, but the new api for working with lists and list items is much more and obviously a part of a bigger api: _api/web/lists

Yesterday I saw an interesting question on SharePoint StackExchange:

The instructions in the MSDN resource are not so detailed, the cannot be. The guy who asked the question did as it stood in the examples. But sometimes solutions for SharePoint need some small adjustments 🙂

Here is the simplest code to create an attachment in plain text for a list item 1 in the list called List1 in the root web. That’s it. But it works:

var content = "Hello, this text is inside the file created with REST API";
var digest = $("#__REQUESTDIGEST").val();
var composedUrl = "/_api/web/lists/GetByTitle('List1')/items(1)/AttachmentFiles/add(FileName='readme.txt')";
$.ajax({
    url: composedUrl,
    type: "POST",
    data: content,
    headers: {        
        "X-RequestDigest": digest
    }
})

This example is of course just for demonstration. It uses only hard-coded values. But it shows how simple it is to create a list item attachment using SharePoint 2013 REST API and “upload” plain text asynchronously to the server.

Not only plain text (update 2013-03-05)

Of course, uploading only a plain text isn’t enough. The same person Fedor Shihantsov came with an additional question and solved it: Upload a non-text file. Somehow jQuery ajax didn’t work. SP.RequestExecutor worked:

$(document).ready( dofunc );

function dofunc() {
    var control = document.getElementById("ufile");
    control.addEventListener("change", fdocattach, false);
}

var file;
var contents;

function fdocattach(event) {
    var i = 0,
    files = event.srcElement.files,
    len = files.length;

    for (; i < len; i++) {
        console.log("Filename: " + files[i].name);
        console.log("Type: " + files[i].type);
        console.log("Size: " + files[i].size + " bytes");
    }
        

    if (files.length > 0) {
        file = files[0];
        fileName = file.name;

        var reader = new window.FileReader();
        reader.onload = fonload;

        reader.onerror = function(event) {
            console.error("File reading error " + event.target.error.code);
        };
        reader.readAsArrayBuffer(file);
    }       
    return false;
}

function _arrayBufferToBase64(buffer) {
    var binary = '';
    var bytes = new window.Uint8Array(buffer);
    var len = bytes.byteLength;
    for (var i = 0; i < len; i++) {
        binary += String.fromCharCode(bytes[i]);
    }
    return binary;
}

function fonload(event) {
    contents = event.target.result;
    $.getScript("/_layouts/15/SP.RequestExecutor.js", fonload2);
}

function fonload2() {
    var contents2 = _arrayBufferToBase64(contents);

    var createitem = new SP.RequestExecutor("/");
    createitem.executeAsync({
        url: "/_api/web/lists/GetByTitle('List1')/items(1)/AttachmentFiles/add(FileName='" + file.name + "')",
        method: "POST",
        binaryStringRequestBody: true,
        body: contents2,
        success: fsucc,
        error: ferr,
        state: "Update"
    });

    function fsucc(data) {
        alert('success');
    }

    function ferr(data) {
        alert('error\n\n' + data.statusText + "\n\n" + data.responseText);
    }
}

I found another example of SP.RequestExecutor: Calling SharePoint search using REST (e.g. from JavaScript or an app)

javascript API i Sharepoint

Det är supersmidigt. Här är ett exempel:

 

function createAnnouncement(title, body) {
    var ctx = new SP.ClientContext.get_current();
    var list = ctx.get_web().get_lists().getByTitle('Meddelanden');
    var itemCreationInfo = new SP.ListItemCreationInformation();
    this.newListItem = list.addItem(itemCreationInfo);
    this.newListItem.set_item("Title", title);
    this.newListItem.set_item("Body", body);
    this.newListItem.update();
    ctx.executeQueryAsync(
    Function.createDelegate(this, this.onSucceededCallback), Function.createDelegate(this, this.onFailedCallback));
}

function onSucceededCallback(sender, args) {
    SP.UI.Status.addStatus("Info", "It worked!",true);
}
function onFailedCallback(sender, args) {
    SP.UI.Status.addStatus("Info", "It didn't work!",true);
}
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